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Original CBS Feature Projects header art

CBS Feature Projects Radio Program

Dee-Scription: Home >> D D Too Home >> Radio Logs >> CBS Feature Projects

54-05-19 CBS FP Spot ad
Spot ad for Episode No. 12 'Indo China,' from May 19, 1954

53-05-28 Spot Ad
KIRO spot ad for Class of '53 from
May 28, 1953


From the May 7th 1953 edition of the Tipton and Miami County News:

     When the Columbia Broadcasting System presented "Bomb Target . . . . U.S.A." March 20 as the first in a feature project program, the response was immediate and demanding.
     Appraising the people of the nation's readiness to cope with atomic disaster, the show was rebroadcast April 2 at the request of civilian defense authorities.
     Friday, the second in the series will be aired over the network at 8 p.m. with Edward R. Murrow as narrator for "The Green Border," a full hour program surveying the complex problems of the Iron Curtain refugee influx into the Free World.
     Scheduled to be heard are Konard Adenauer, chancellor of Germany; Eric Boheman, ambassador from Sweden; Carlo Perrone Capano, official spokesman of the Italian foreign office; Leslie Knox Munro, ambassador from New Zealand; Carlos Romulo, ambassador from the Philippine Islands and permanent representative to the United Nations; Sir Percy Spender, ambassador from Australia; and George Warren, advisor on refugee affairs to John Foster Dulles, secretary of state.
     Also scheduled to be heard on the program are dozens of little people--the refugees to whom the Free World and this nation represent a fairy tale with standard happy ending.
     Interviewed on tape by David Moore of CBS, the refugees have two things in common regardless of diversified background and experiences--the barrier of hopelessness and the determination not to go back behind the Iron Curtain.
     Moore, who has covered floods, bomb runs, water-front crime and murder, has said of his interviews that he never knew the face of fear until he saw it in the gaunt, despair-filled countenances of the hundreds he interviewed in camps, cities and key points along the Iron Curtain.

From the October 3rd, 1953 edition of the Sacramento Bee:

Tape Recorder Is Effective Way To Gather Radio Material head

     NEW YORK--That fine new journalist's tool, the tape recorder, gets quite a stimulating workout on Feature Project, a CBS radio enterprise which about once a month has been presenting hour long shows on problems of national interest.  Since Last March, when the series started, Feature Project has presented Bomb Target, USA, with Arthur Godfrey narrating, a grim tale of what the atom would do to us; The Green Border, the story of the refugees who have fled the Iron Curtain countries, narrated by Edward R. Murrow; Class of '53, which was about today's teenagers and was narrated by Justice Douglas; Thirty Eighth Parallel, USA, in which Americans along the thirty eighth parallel in this country were interviewed about the Korean War; The Quacks, an expose of medical charlatans narrated by Bill Downs; and This Game of Baseball, all about the national pastime and narrated by that part owner of the Pirates, Bing Crosby.

     They haven't all been great--in fact the baseball documentary was pretty bad--but the average has been very high.  I personally prefer the CBS crew in their muck raking mood, best exemplified by Nation's Nightmare, a series about the crime ridden waterfront.  In the present series CBS tape recording reporters invaded the quacks' offices, posed as patients and recorded their voices pontificating medical double talk.
     The quacks talked such utter malarkey that it would have been funny--except that ill people willing to try anything and hastening their own deaths in the process have a limited comedy appeal.  One case was that of a Florida man with the socalled Koch treatment for cancer.  The quack gave him a shot of distilled water, worth a few cents, and charged him $100.  (The treatment usually costs from $100 to $500 a shot.)  The quack claimed it would cure anything, including insanity, hay fever, coronary thrombosis, dementia praecox and leprosy.  Cancer spread all over the patient's face after he took the shot.  When the man finally went to a legitimate cancer clinic, the whole lower half of his face had to be removed by surgery.  The man hasn't been able to talk since.
     Assembling material like this is a little rough on the tape recording reporters at times.
     One "naturopath" told a CBS reporter with "a bad heart" to stop eating for seven days.  "Body will start burning up all you've got in your blood," he said.  "That will get you out of bed."  "Will my heatr get better?"  asked the reporter.  "You'll either get better or starve."  The guy sounded a little nutty as did many of the quacks.
     Radio is usually overcome with timidity but on these programs CBS is performing a service at some risk.  The network names names whenever the legal department lets them and sometimes works right with a lawyer.  The Feature Project staff consists of five producers, three fulltime reporters and about 40 stringers scattered around the country.  For an hour long show, they assemble as much as 100 hours of tape recordings.  There is no direct editorializing but, naturally, with material like The Quacks the listeners are left with strong feelings on the subjects.
     They don't all turn out happily either.  This Game Of Baseball was a tedious recital of the troubles of the front office, the salaries of minor league ballplayers and the affair of the dwindling box office.  It sounded as if it had been written by a fiscal expert.  There was none of the glamor of the game itself, the great plays, the great misplays, the legends, the colorful characters.  Crosby tried hard but even he couldn't rise above this stuff.
     Still, even when it stumbles, Feature Project is pretty high level radio.  Radio, in general, has fallen on evil days but this is one area, according to Stuart Novins, CBS director of public affairs, where radio can do a job better than any other medium.

From the February 27th, 1954 edition of the York Gazette and Daily:

Radio and Television head Lester

     New York--Here we go again with CBS radio's "Feature Propect" serie, Sundays from 5 to 6 p.m., EST.
     Every time I feel I've done the last piece on this outstanding series, either by way of comment or advance notice, up comes another of its programs that's just too good or too important to ignore.
     The latest is "The High Mountain," a documented report on the Negro in the United States, which will be broadcast tomorrow evening.
     Narrators will be Judge William H. Hastie, of the U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, and Admiral Alan G. Kirk, USN, Retired.
     Though very frankly not attempting to be an all-conclusive survey of our 16,000,000-plus American Negroes, the program will still try to be one of the most comprehensive of its kind ever done on the air.
     It has a two-fold purpose:  First, to examine the progress and problems of the American Negro, and, secondly, to place in better perspective his status as of today and how it affects the cause of Democracy both nationally and internationally.
     This particular program was designed some time ago by Stuart Novins, the director of Public Affairs for CBS radio, who has been so closely connected with this fine "Feature Project" series from the start, so that both important aspects, national and international, as noted, could be examined and reflected.
     Judge Hastie, who holds the highest judicial office yet attained by an American Negro, has within his own lifetime experienced many of the charges which have affected the Negroes during the last 50 years.
     Admiral Kirk, former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Belgium and wartime director of the Office of Naval Intelligence, was able to see at first hand some of the international effects of Communist propaganda about the American Negroes, and he will narrate from that point of view.
     "The High Mountain" is being produced by Al Morgan, who produced three outstanding "Feature Projects" in the past, including "The 38th Parallel, USA," "This Game of Baseball," and "Parole File 732," all or any of which you may remember.
     Morgan has been at work on the "Feature Project" program for about three months, directing a field force of CBS reporters.
     He has concentrated on five major areas which most leaders and spokesman for the Negro people in this country agree are the true barometers of Negro progress:  Namely, education, housing, social integration, political participation and employment.
     Since the problems and examples of progress aren't restricted to any single geographical region or area, "Feature Project" reporters roamed the nation for this one, recording many interviews, experiences, impressions and stalemates to fit the intricate pattern of those five main areas.
     About 80 hours of accumulated taped material were gathered in this way and from these producer Morgan has crystalized a one-hour evaluation report told by real people in their own unrehearsed, recorded words.
     The title, "The High Mountain," came from a field interview with a Negro whose name nobody seems to have but the important thing is it went like this:  "In my lifetime, I sometimes feel that being a Negro is like climbing a mountain, a high mountain.
     "You go up a step at a time, somebody makes a path.
     "Finally, there are more paths and you reach a point where you have to go on all by yourself.
     "That's where the American Negro is now.
     "You can't expect anyone else to carry you from here.
     "We're not quite on top of the high mountain yet, but from here on, it's up to us to climb the rest of the way, and, oh, but won't that be a beautiful view from the top of that high mountain?"
     Practically poetry, isn't it?
     Anyhow, "The High Mountain" is the tenth in a series of full-hour "Feature Project" productions, some of the best documentary-type radio programs ever heard on radio.
     In addition to the three already mentioned, others have been on escapees from behind the Iron Curtain, our nation's military and civilian readiness against atomic attack, a study of modern teenagers, another on medical charlatans, one on traffic fatalities in this cuontry and one on gambling.

Series Derivatives:

CBS Feature Project; CBS Feature Project Productions; Feature Project
Genre: Anthology of Golden Age Radio Social Documentary
Network(s): CBS
Audition Date(s) and Title(s): Unknown
Premiere Date(s) and Title(s): 53-03-20 01 Bomb Target USA
Run Dates(s)/ Time(s): 53-03-20 to 54-05-27; CBS; Thirteen, 60-minute programs; Fridays, until Episode No. 5, then various days.
Syndication: CBS Documenttary Unit
Sponsors: Sustaining
Director(s): Al Morgan, David Moore [Producer]
Stuart Novins, the director of Public Affairs [Supervisor]
Principal Appearances: Val Peterson, Egon Franthe, Frau Doktor Elizabeth Gerharts, 'The Comte', Ladislaw Beranecke, Ambassador Llewelyn Thompson, Jr., Leslie Knox Monroe, Carlo Peroni Cappano, Paul Reynaud, Sir Percy Spender, George Warren, The Hon. Phillip Pearlman, James O'Neill, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of Germany, Ambassador Carlos Romulo, Ambassador Eric Boheman of Sweden, Bing Crosby, Yogi Berra, Billy Bruton, Ford Frick, Charley Grimm, Clark Griffith, Gil Hodges, Sen. E. C. Johnson (D-Col.), Mickey Mantle, Warren Spahn, Dr. Lyman Bryson,
Recurring Character(s):
Author(s): None
Music Direction: Ben Ludlow [Composer]; Alfredo Antonini [Conductor]
Musical Theme(s):
Narrator(s): Arthur Godfrey, Edward R. Murrow, Justice William O. Douglas, Will Rogers Jr, Bill Downs, Bing Crosby, Eric Severeid, Don Hollenbeck, Admiral Alan G. Kirk, Ret., Judge William H. Hastie, Lowell Thomas, Red Barber

Olan Tice [Announcer]

Estimated Scripts or
Episodes in Circulation: 2
Total Episodes in Collection: 2

Notes on Provenances:

The most helpful provenances were newspaper listings.

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CBS Feature Projects Program Log

Date Episode Title Avail. Notes
Bomb Target USA
[Preempts an episode of There's Music In the Air]

53-03-20 Wisconsin State Journal
8 p.m.--
Bomb Target U.S.A. (WKOW): appraisal of nation's civil defense preparations, simulated bombing attack, visit to emergency headquarters; Arthur Godfrey, Val Peterson, newsmen.

53-03-20 New York Times
9-10--Bomb Target--U.S.A.: Documentary Appraising the Nation's Readiness to Cope With Atomic Disaster; Val Peterson, Guest; Arthur Godfrey, Narrator--WCBS.

The Green Border
[Preempts an episode of There's Music In the Air]

53-05-08 Wisconsin State Journal - 8 p.m.--The Green Border (WKOW): full-hour survey of problems created by arrival of Iron Curtain refugees; Edward R. Murrow, narrator; voices of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of Germany, officials of Sweden, Italy, New Zealand, Phlippines, Australia, and U.S., refugees.

53-05-08 New York Times
9-10--"The Green Border"--A Special Report On Refugees from Iron Curtain Countries, With Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of Germany, Ambassador Carlos Romulo, Ambassador Eric Boheman of Sweden, Others; Edward R. Murrow, Narrator (Recorded)--WCBS.

The Class Of '53
53-05-29 Wisconsin State Journal - 8 p.m.--Class of '53 (WKOW): study of minds, morale, and morals of teen-age generation; Justice William O. Douglas, narrator; voices of hot-rod drivers, Phi-Beta Kappas, gang members, Junior Achievement youths.

53-05-29 Seattle Daily Times
. . . Listen to KIRO tomorrow night, between 9:00 and 10:00. The program is Class of '53, a CBS Radio Feature Project production. Narrator is U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas.

Thirty Eighth Parallel, USA
53-06-26 Wisconsin State Journal
8 p.m.--
38th Parallel, U.S.A. (WKOW): interviews with Americans living along 38th parallel; music written and sung by Tom Scott.

53-06-26 New York Times
9-10--"38th Parallel, U.S.A.": Documentary--With Will Rogrs Jr., Narrator--WCBS.

53-06-26 New Orleans Times-Picayune
A full-hour feature project production, 38th Parallel--USA," marking the third anniversary of the start of the Korean hostilities, will be broadcst via CBS-WWL Friday (8 p.m.) with Will Rogres Jr. as narrator. To get the documentary report, field men of 26 CBS radio affiliated stations made on-the-spot recordings of hte hard core of the program. They had people from coast-to-coast along the 38th Parallel tell their stories and experiences in their own unrehearsed words. Interviews were recorded in a true cross-section of places, in factories, farms, offices, hospitals, churches, cities, towns--even lighthouse stations. The ambitious undertaking is the fourth in a series of such productions planned by Stuart Novins, CBS radio director of public affairs.

The Quacks
53-08-07 Wisconsin State Journal
8 p.m.--
The Quacks (WKOW): one-hour expose of medical charlatans, with actual visits to fakers.

53-08-07 New York Time
9-10--"The Quacks"
Documentary Expose of Medical Charlatans; With Bill Downs, Narrator--WCBS (Premiere).

This Game Of Baseball
[ Saturday broadcast]

53-09-26 Wisconsin State Journal
7 p.m.--
This Game of Baseball (WKOW): documentary report with Bing Crosby, Yogi Berra, Billy Bruton, Ford Frick, Charley Grimm, Clark Griffith, Gil Hodges, Sen. E. C. Johnson (D-Col.), Mickey Mantle, Warren Spahn, many others.

Parole File 732
[Preempts an episode of Star Struck; Friday broadcast]

53-11-25 Greensboro Record
WBIG-CBS will carry "
Parole File 732" at 9 p.m. Friday as the seventh CBS radio feature project production. The hour-long study of an unidentified parolee from Colorado Stte Penitentiary takes up his story during the last week in prison and follows him as he readjusts to the outside world. The man was sentenced to death in 1931 on a murder charge, spent 14 months in the death house, in a second trial had the sentence commuted to 65 years to life. Eric Severeid, chief Washington correspondent of CBS radio, will be the narrator.

Dead Stop
[Preempts episodes of Crime Classics and On Stage; Wednesday broadcast]

53-12-23 Wisconsin State Journal - 8 p.m.--Dead Stop (WKOW): documentary on 1953's "incurable disease, traffic fatalities."

53-12-20 Boston Record American
'Dead Stop' Story "
Dead Stop," a shocker on 1953's "incurable disease"--traffic fatalities--will be CBS-WEEI radio's next full-hour "Feature Project" presentation on Wednesday at 9 p.m. Red Barber will be narrator.

The Gamblers
[Preempts an episode of Star Struck; Sunday broadcast]

54-01-30 Roseburg News-Review
The Gamblers' Is New KRNR-CBS Radio Feature "The Gamblers," a hard-hitting expose of gambling and corruption will be the next full-hour krnr-CBS radio feature project broadcast Sundayh, from 2-3 p.m., with Don Hollenbeck as narrator. Because feature project reporters had to work undercover and in secrecy while gathering the hard core material for "The Gamblers," no advance announcement could be made until four days before the broadcast on Jan 31. With hidden microphones, reporters penetrated some of the innermost circles of the illegal gambling world around the country. The result is an expose on the patterns of corruption when "The Gamblers" move into a community. "The Gamblers" is the ninth in a series of full-hour Feature Project productions covering subjects of vital public interest.

The High Mountain
[Preempts an episode of Star Struck; Sunday broadcast]

54-02-28 Wisconsin State Journal
4 p.m.--
The High Mountain (WKOW): one-hour documentary on the Negro in the U.S.

54-02-26 Idaho State Journal
KJRL, CBS to Air Program on Negro Because communist international propaganda has been focusing on distorted and false stories of the status of the Negro in the United States, CBS Radio will present a factual objective report on this subject Sunday. It will be heard on KJRL from 3 to 4 p.m. The national survey, titled "The High Mountain," will be narrated jointly by Admiral Alan G. Kirk, Ret., former ambassador to to Russia and Judge William H. Hastie, highest ranking Negro judge in the United States. It will be the tenth in the CBS radio feature project series.

The Wetbacks
[Preempts an episode of Star Struck; Sunday broadcast]

54-04-08 Idaho State Journal
KJRL to Air '
The Wetbacks' KJRL will broadcast the CBS Radio's full hour documented report on "The Wetbacks" Sunday from 3 to 4 p.m. This is the eleventh of CBS' feature project productions on critical social conditions affecting the nation. The broadcast will show, through actuality tapes and reports from the field, the whole Mexican labor story. It will deal with legally contracted Mexicans and with the illegal "wetbacks." It will cover smuggling, infiltration, the Border Patrol operations, the effects on native American workers and the problems of the growers. It also will hold up a danger flag to warn of the of the problem of national security created by the wide open door of the inadequately gnarded Mexican border.

Report On Indo-China
[Preempts an episode of Crime Classics; Wednesday broadcast]

54-05-19 New York Times
Report on Indo-China"--Documentary, with Lowell Thomas, narrator; Dr. Lyman Bryson, discussion leader, and guests--WCBS.

54-05-19 Brooklyn Daily Eagle
9:00--Feature Project--"Report on Indo-China," Lowell Thomas, narrator, WCBS.

Dead Stop
[Preempts an episode of Escape; Thursday broacast]

54-05-11 Decatur Daily Review
The National Safety Council's 1953 Public Interest Award has been given to CBS radio, particularly for its feature project "
Dead Stop" which will be re-broadcast May 27.

54-05-27 Brooklyn Daily Eagle
9:30--Feature Project, "Dead Stop," Safety Campaign Documentary, Red Barber, narrator, WCBS.

54-05-27 New York Times
9:30-10:30--Traffic Documentary: "Dead Stop," interviews at the scenes of accidents, at hospitals and in police stations; Red Barber, narrator--WCBS.

CBS Feature Projects Program Biographies

Edward R. Murrow [Egbert Roscoe Murrow]
Radio and Television Reporter, Director and Producer

Birthplace: Greensboro, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Education: State College of Washington

Military Service: Cadet Colonel, ROTC [WSC]; War Correspondent

1937 Saturday Night Swing Club
1937 Columbia Workshop
1938 World News Roundup
1939 European War Crisis
1939 News Of the European Situation
1939 Edward R. Murrow
1939 CBS News
1939 News Of Europe
1939 European News Roundup
1939 Today In Europe
1939 This Week In Europe
1939 The War This Week
1940 The World This Week
1940 News Of the World
1940 The World Today
1940 The World Tonight
1940 The News From Europe
1940 London After Dark
1941 World News Tonight
1941 How CBS Covers the War
1941 Winston Churchill
1941 President Roosevelt Returns From the Atlantic Charter Conference
1941 Anniversary of World War II
1941 Royal Air Force Band
1941 Dinner For Edward R. Murrow
1941 CBS News
1941 Twelve Crowded Months
1942 What Are We Fighting For
1942 An American In England
1943 Casablanca Meeting Report
1943 NBC Symphony Orchestra
1944 America Salutes the President's Birthday
1944 Pre-War Television
1944 How CBS Will Cover the Invasion
1944 Round-UP of Invasion News
1944 Invasion Bulletins
1944 D-Day Official Inasion Circuit
1944 CBS D-Day Coverage
1944 NBC D-Day Coverage
1944 Mutual D-Day Coverage
1944 Round-Up
1944 D-Day Plus Three
1944 How CBS Covered the Invasion
1944 Bill Downs Reporting From Europe
1944 BBC Radio Newsreel
1945 Treasury Salute
1945 Edward R. Murrow and the News
1945 Junction of Russian and American Forces
1945 V-E Day Coverage
1945 Morgan Beatty
1945 Potsdam Conference Report
1945 World News Round-Up
1945 Japanese Surrender Coverage
1945 Freedom Forum
1946 A Reporter Remembers
1946 Stars In the Afternoon
1947 Highlights Of the Royal Weddding
1947 Wedding Of Princess Elizabeth
1948 Edward R. Murrow News
1948 Between the Dark and the Dayllight
1948 New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra
1948 Report On the Murder Of George Polk
1948 You and Television
1948 Election Night Preview
1949 Gisele Of Canada
1949 Inauguration Of President Truman
1949 Voice Of the Army
1949 Sunday With Murrow
1949 Club Fifteen
1950 The New Frontier
1950 London Forum
1950 The Case Of the Flying Saucer
1950 A Report To the Nation
1950 Hear It Now
1951 Stars On Parade
1952 This Is Polio
1952 I Remember Kaltenborn
1952 California Civil Defense
1953 This I Believe
1953 CBS Feature Projects
1954 CBS News Retrospective:  Resources For Freedom
1954 The Amos 'n' Andy Show
1954 The Man Who Wasn't Always Wrong
1955 Years Of Crisis
1955 The Terrible Rain
1956 This Is Civil Defense
1956 The Best Of Benny
1957 The Galindez-Murphy Case:  A Chronicle Of Terror
1957 CBS Radio Workshop
1957 Fifth Anniversary Salute Of "Operation Skywatch"
1957 Studio One
1957 BBC Salute To CBS
1957 The Big News of 1957
1958 We Take You Back
1958 Who Killed Michael Farmer
1958 P.O.W...A Study In Survival
1959 The Business Of Sex
1959 The Lost Class of '59
1959 The Hidden Revolution
1959 Montgomery Speaks His Mind
1959 The Educated Woman
1961 Meet the Press
1964 Farewell To Studio Nine
Ronald Colman circa 1917
Edward R. Murrow at 20

The sixth edition of 'See It Now' from 1951

From the April 28, 1965 edition of The Wisconsin State Journal:

Edward R. Murrow, Famed World War II Newscaster, Dies of Cancer at 57

     PAWLING, N. Y. (UPI)—Edward R. Murrow, 57, one of the nation's most famous radio-television commentators who took a quarter million dollar annual pay cut to serve his country as head of the U.S. Information Agency, died Tuesday of cancer.
     Three weeks ago, knowing his case was hopeless, he asked his doctors to let him leave the New York City hospital where he was under treatment so he could spend his last days in the Hudson river valley home he loved.  Doctors granted his wish,
     Murrow became a familiar name with an even more familiar voice as he risked his life dozens of times to bring millions of Americans the sounds of terror, death, and destruction during the rise of Nazi tyranny in World
War II.
     He put his microphone on the sidewalks of London to get the sounds of people walking—not running—to bomb shelters during the blitz.  He chartered an airplane and then rode a streetcar into Vienna one-half hour ahead of the Wehrmacht to get the sounds of their goose-step beating down the streets.  He described the dead bodies at Buchenwald.
     He was an international ambulance chaser—the man on the scene of floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and war in Asia and the Middle East as well as Europe.
Murrow was born in Greensboro, N. C., on a tenant farm.  His father was a man "who never actually said there was anything dishonest with making a living by talking."

     He was making more than $300,000 a year with Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) when he left in 1961 to run and revamp the USIA, for a salary of $21,000.
     Friends said the globe-trotting newsman was a "human dynamo running on nervous energy."  He slept only four or five hours a night for years, they said, and puffed continuously on three packs of cigarets a day.
     In October, 1963, Murrow had one lung removed because of cancer.
     He recovered sufficiently to return to his USIA post, but it rapidly became too much for him and he resigned the following January to complete his recuperation.
     Last November, he went back to the hospital.  Doctors said he had to undergo surgery.  The hospital refused to explain the exact nature of the operation, but reported he was making a "nice recovery."  However, he did not leave the hospital until his ambulance trip home to die three weeks ago.
     For nearly 25 years, Murrow was the most valuable property of CBS.  He was made a vice-chairman when he returned from Europe, but he disliked administrative work--"especially firing people"--and resigned that post.  He served on the network board of directors.
     With the advent of television, he became virtually a member of the family circle in millions of American living rooms with his "Person to Person" weekly show and his monthly "See It Now."
     His handsome, bushy-browed face had a natural worried look that was appealing to women.  And his tweedy, man-of-action appearance was popular with men.
     His intellectuality had a common touch.  His social conscience generally showed.
     One of his most sensational productions was the 1954 telecast that attacked Sen. Joseph B. McCarthy by using the senator's own quotes.  The show violated CBS' non-partisan policy.
     The network received more than 50,000 letters about the show.  They were four to one in favor of Murrow.  The network stood by him.

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